Contract Research Findings:
Human Dimensions


Title:A place to hunt: organizational changes in recreational hunting, using Texas as a case study
Journal/Year:Wildlife Society Bulletin/2000
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Author(s):Clark E. Adams|Neal Wilkins|Jerry L. Cooke
Keywords:agency|hunters|landowners|models|NGO|nongovernmental organizations
Abstract:We provide an overview of events that have led to the evolution of 3 models of agency, landowner, and hunter interactions that have changed how Texans find a place to hunt. Our overview consists of a description of the chain of events that resulted in each model; illustrations and discussions of each model concerning changes in the levels of influence exerted by the agency, landowners, hunters, and other; and some extrapolations of how the emergence of each model changed how Texas residents find a place to hunt. Our examination of the organization of recreational hunting may provide some insights into the future of hunting recreation in Texas and perhaps the United States.
Citation:Adams, C. E., N. Wilkins, and J. L. Cooke. 2000. A place to hunt: organizational changes in recreational hunting using Texas as a case study. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28:788-796.
Title:Integrating land conservation planning in the classroom
Journal/Year:Wildlife Society Bulletin/2005
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Author(s):Roel R. Lopez|K. Brian Hays|Matt W. Wagner|Shawn L. Locke|Robert A. McCleery|Nova J. Silvy
Keywords:conservation planning|education|experiential learning|management plans|students|wildlife careers|wildlife education|writing
Abstract:Opportunities for wildlife undergraduates to engage in land conservation planning can bridge the gap between formal academic training and professional wildlife experiences. Land conservation plans are an important component in managing wildlife habitat. In 1995 state legislation offered Texas landowners the opportunity to remain under agricultural valuation (Texas House Bill 1358, Proposition 11, 1-d-1) by designating wildlife management activities as qualifying agricultural practices. To obtain a wildlife management tax valuation, a landowner must have an active, written wildlife management plan. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) biologists often provide technical guidance to landowners in this process. Allowing wildlife undergraduates to have an active role in this process offers a unique opportunity for them to gain practical "hands-on" experiences while improving their writing skills. Students enrolled in Wildlife Habitat Management and Conservation (WFSC 406) work in groups (3-4 students) to develop a management plan for 3 local landowners. In addition to writing an actual management plan, students gain experience in land surveying, vegetation sampling, GIS/GPS technology, and public speaking. Landowners receive 3 peer-reviewed management plans they can select from to implement on their property. Students assist TPWD biologists and Texas Cooperative Extension staff in providing technical guidance to local landowners. Wildlife education can be enhanced by integrating land conservation planning in the classroom via partnerships with natural resource agencies and landowners.
Management Implications:We found use of experiential learning and writing pedagogies in WFSC 406 to be effective in teaching wildlife undergraduates the basics in wildlife-habitat management and conservation planning. In addition to a strong background in basic ecological and wildlife-management principles, wildlife students also obtained problem-solving skills, team-work experience, and exposure to budget management and report writing. Students also gained experience in habitat assessment, GIS and GPS technology, and public speaking. Most importantly, wildlife students were able to synthesize and present information learned in the classroom in the form of a written wildlife management plan presented to landowners and professional wildlife biologists. One of the unique results from our classroom activity was the interaction of student teams with actual landowners as opposed to fictitious scenarios often presented in wildlife courses. Students gained an understanding of the challenges of working with landowners with diverse perspectives and opinions during the development of landowner plans. Student feedback has been positive in the use of a wildlife management plan in the classroom. For example, students responded the management plan was a useful exercise in class from recent class surveys (Fall 2004 and Spring 2005 class survey data, n = 50; 41/50, 82%, A = strongly agreed; 9/50, B = 18% agreed). Students also like the idea of working with local landowners (Fall 2004 and Spring 2005 class survey data, n = 50; 45/50, 90%, A=strongly agreed; 5/50, B=10% agreed) and TPWD biologists (Fall 2004 and Spring 2005 class survey data, n = 50; 45/50, 90%, A = strongly agreed; 4/50, B = 8% agreed; 1/50, 2%, C = undecided). For landowners, class participation resulted in 3 peer-reviewed management plans they could select to implement on their property. Landowner feedback throughout the semester allows management plans to be tailored to landowner objectives and needs. To date, all previous management plans have been used by landowners (10 landowners since 2003), though the number of actual recommendations implemented has varied (e.g., landowner implements 2 of 3 recommendations selecting to implement a different recommendation for his or her third option). Management plans were conducted free of charge. For TPWD biologists, WFSC 406 students assisted them in fulfilling their mission of providing technical guidance to local landowners. In our case the regional TPWD biologist was assisted in preparing 10 management plans for local landowners since 2003. We propose that wildlife education can be enhanced by integrating land-conservation planning in the classroom via partnerships with natural resource agencies and landowners.
Citation:Lopez, R. R., K. B. Hays, M. W. Wagner, S. L. Locke, R. A. McCleery, and N. J. Silvy. 2005. Integrating land conservation planning in the classroom. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:223-228.
Title:Accounting for radiotelemetry signal flux in triangulation point estimate
Journal/Year:European Journal of Wildlife Research/2007
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Author(s):Shawn P. Haskell|Warren B. Ballard
Keywords:accuracy|maximum likelihood|methods|weighted-incenter
Abstract:Triangulation by radiotelemetry is a method commonly used to estimate locations of wildlife. Despite the importance of the accuracy of resulting location estimates, there has been little development and comparison of alternative methods for point-location estimation for 25 years. Most methods assume that signal transmissions as they are received are consistent, but signal heterogeneity and fluxing is common. Using data from a beacon study, we determined that a subjective ranking of confidence in the accuracy of a signal was correlated with absolute bearing error. Using this factor and the distance from a telemetry station to the error triangle incenter, we developed an algorithm to place a weighted point-location estimate in relative proximity to each error triangle leg. We have termed this the weighted-incenter method. Despite previous findings that the major confidence ellipse axis of Lenth's maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) correlated best to linear distance error, our beacon test data indicated that total bearing angle difference was the best single predictor of linear error with an optimal total angle of about 100º. The new and intuitive weighted-incenter method offered some improvement over previous methods such as the MLE estimator, but only with suboptimal angle bearings that may be common in field studies. By using a MATLAB function to produce data for site-specific regression analyses, one can determine which method should produce the more accurate point-location estimate for each triangulation observation. Further significance of this study for field biologists is discussed.
Management Implications:The weighted-incenter method we presented may have further drawbacks and benefits. The bearing confidence ranks on which it relies were subjective and may be difficult to standardize among observers. However, the most important consideration for the confidence rank is that it is relatively consistent within each triangulation observation; as long as the three signals are ranked accurately respective of one another, the estimator should operate as intended. The MATLAB function as programmed only accepts three bearings for each triangulation observation. Other methods, such as the MLE, are currently more appropriate for radiotelemetry point estimation with other than three bearings (i.e., not triangulation). We observed little variability in signal strength during our beacon test study (Fig. 1), though greater variability may be more common in field studies (Fig. 5). We did not fix radio collars around plastic bottles filled with saline to reduce signal strength as has been recommended for beacon studies (Hupp and Ratti 1983). It is logical that the weighted-incenter method should perform as well or better relative to other methods when signal strength ranks are more variable, but further beacon testing should incorporate methods to produce signals from radio collars that are weaker than those that we received. The signals we received were often too strong to rank signal strength as "4" because a silent and distinct null was unattainable. This new method may facilitate data entry by allowing each triangulation observation to be entered into a single row within a software spreadsheet thereby reducing repetitive typing of grouping variables. MATLAB is an excellent tool for techniques such as those described in this paper because the programmer can obtain most any information deemed useful. For example, if a triangulation observation produces rays that do not intersect because the radio-transmittered animal is close to a telemetry station or because one or more bearings are deviant, the generated output can inform the programmer to examine the observation with a figure plot. We have programmed MATLAB to produce such a plot, but the MapSourc™ software (Garmin) designed to store GPS data over a topographic layout can also be used in such a way and can help a researcher become familiarized with telemetry stations at a study site.
Citation:Haskell, S. P., and W. B. Ballard. 2006. Accounting for radiotelemetry signal flux in triangulation point estimation. European Journal of Wildlife Research 53:204-211.
Title:Collective action and social capital of wildlife management associations
Journal/Year:Journal of Wildlife Management/2007
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Author(s):Matthew W. Wagner|Urs P. Kreuter|Ronald A. Kaiser|R. Neal Wilkins
Keywords:common-pool resource|landowner associations|Odocoileus virginianus|social capital|white-tailed deer
Abstract:In areas with dense landownership patterns, management of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) depends upon collective decision making of landowners and hunters. To resolve conflicts associated with this commons dilemma, wildlife management associations (WMAs) have become a popular mechanism for coordinating wildlife management decisions in private land states, especially in Texas, USA. Social capital, represented by metrics such as trust, reciprocity, and community involvement, has been identified as an important determinant of the success of collaborative institutional arrangements. To determine the influence of social capital on the effectiveness of WMAs, we address 2 research questions: 1) do WMAs exhibit elements of social capital, and 2) what landowner characteristics affect elements of social capital within WMAs? We used a mail survey questionnaire to determine the effect of various factors on the activities and management practices in 4 WMAs in 2 regions in Texas: the Lower Post Oak Savannah (LPOS) and the Central Post Oak Savannah (CPOS). The LPOS landowners were members of larger associations, had generally acquired their land more recently, held more frequent meetings, and tended to have longer association membership than CPOS landowners, yet they exhibited lower social capital. The CPOS landowners owned significantly larger properties, and were predominantly absentee wealthy males that considered relaxation and hunting more important land uses than property ownership for a place to live. The smaller group size of the CPOS associations may be the most important factor in building and maintaining social capital. Intra-association trust, a primary measure of social capital, was positively influenced by the longevity of property ownership, the number of association meetings, the percentage of males in the association, and other factors. Conversely, negative influences on trust included absentee ownership and the proportion of woodland habitat present in each WMA. We suggest that deer are a common-pool resource whose populations are dependent upon collective action by stakeholders. Social capital building within landowner associations could facilitate the sustainable harvest of quality deer and possibly lead to cooperative management of other common-pool natural resources.
Management Implications:Our results suggest that small (< 30 members) rather than large (> 100) wildlife management associations may be more effective for building social capital. However, this may not be possible in highly fragmented habitats. Where average property size approaches 80 ha per member, it may be possible to restore area-dependent species, such as bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), with ≤ 25 association members, based on an average of about 2,000 ha for a viable population (Texas Quail Council 2005). Incentive programs, such as habitat improvement cost sharing, targeted at WMAs in priority areas, could significantly increase landowner participation and interest in relevant associations. For example, large-scale projects requiring multilandowner collaboration could include native grassland restoration for quail or brush control for enhanced water yields. The different conditions for WMA formation reflect different needs according to land ownership and land-use patterns. Social capital may be generated from the shared values of local landowners, but trust and reciprocity relationships are enhanced through regular contact of association members. When membership exceeds 30, it may be advantageous to increase the number of association meetings, increase the means of communication, or subdivide into groups in order to increase social capital. In addition to group size, other factors play a role in social capital building among landowners within WMAs. Social capital may be negatively impacted by an increase in absentee landowners or those in distant professional positions who might be less trusting of neighbors than local landowners engaged in agriculture. Another dampening effect on social capital, particularly trust, could be the relative abundance of heavily timbered habitat in an open-pasture-dominated region. The elevated deer densities associated with wooded habitats may decrease the perceived need for landowners to cooperatively improve deer populations. Conversely, in areas with high deer numbers, collective management to improve herd quality may require high levels of trust, which is best achieved in small, homogeneous associations.
Citation:Wagner, M. W., U. P. Kreuter, R. A. Kaiser, and R. N. Wilkins. 2007. Collective action and social capital of wildlife management associations in Texas. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:1729-1738.
Title:Linking water conservation and natural resource stewardship in the Trinity River Basin
Journal/Year:Texas Cooperative Extension/2007
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Author(s):James C. Cathey|Shawn L. Locke|Andrea M. Feldpausch|Israel D. Parker|Carl Frentress|Jay Whiteside|Corey Mason|Matthew W. Wagner
Abstract:As the population of Texas continues to grow, water issues will become a central focus. Water supplies are not growing. Clearly, we must consider alternative ways and seek new innovations for conserving water to meet future demands. Conservation efforts are particularly important in the Trinity River Basin because the river supplies water to approximately 40% of the state's residents. Faced with water shortage and quality issues, Texans have a growing interest in gaining information regarding watershed and land management practices. This improved information is necessary to bridge the watershed and water-use knowledge gap. Within the Trinity River watershed today, municipalities use more water than agricultural and industrial-related activities. Over the last several decades, people have migrated from rural areas to predominately urban areas. Managing this change will require a shift in thinking as individuals and civic leaders redefine how they influence water conservation. Having knowledge of soil, water, flora, fauna and the management practices necessary to enhance ecosystem function will become more important for those engaged in water and land stewardship. Past and current winners of the LSLSA and work done by Texas Master Naturalist offer good examples of how to conduct conservation efforts on large and small landscape scales within the framework of their own land ethic. Good management maximizes both environmental health and output. However, bad management impairs the ability of the environment to provide essential services both now and in the future. To aid decision-making, we provide contacts and sources of more information needed by landowners and stakeholders to further educate themselves on water-related issues. Accurate information is vital for the specific and positive land management required to ensure the availability of quality water in a growing and changing Texas. As the 512-mile course of the Trinity River passes through 38 counties and several major ecoregions, it delivers ecosystem services that benefit nature and humans. Although our tendency is to remove ourselves from nature, it is obvious that we are intimately connected, and conservation efforts need to be employed now in order to provide water in the future.
Citation:Cathey, J. C., S. L. Locke, A. M. Feldpausch, I. D. Parker, C. Frentress, J. Whiteside, C. Mason, and M. W. Wagner. 2007. Linking water conservation & natural resource stewardship in the Trinity River Basin. Texas Cooperative Extension Report, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA.
Title:Managing the commons Texas style: wildlife management and ground-water associations on private lands
Journal/Year:Journal of the American Water Resources Association/2007
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Author(s):Matthew Wagner|Ronald Kaiser|Urs Kreuter|Neal Wilkins
Keywords:ground-water management|private lands|social capital|landowner associations|water policy|planning
Abstract:As nearly all of Texas' rural lands are privately owned, landowner associations for the management of white-tailed deer and ground-water have become increasingly popular. Deer are a common-pool resource with transboundary characteristics, requiring landowner cooperation for effective management. Ground-water reserves are economically important to landowner, but are governed by the "rule of capture" whereby property rights are not defined. One ground-water association and four wildlife management associations (WMAs) were surveyed to characterize their member demographics, land use priorities, attitudes, and social capital. Members of the ground-water cooperative were part of a much larger, more heterogeneous, and more recently formed group than members of WMAs. They also placed greater importance on utilitarian aspects of their properties, as opposed to land stewardship for conservation as practiced by members of WMAs. If ground-water association members could be more locally organized with more frequent meetings, social capital and information sharing may be enhanced and lead to land stewardship practices for improved hydrologic functions and sustained ground-water supply. This, coupled with pumping rules assigned by the local ground-water district, could yield an effective strategy that is ecologically and hydrologically sound, and that allows rural provision of water supply to urban consumers.
Citation:Wagner, M., R. Kaiser, U. Kreuter, and N. Wilkins. 2007. Managing the commons Texas style: wildlife management and ground-water associations on private lands. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43:698-711.
Title:Spatial distribution of attitudes toward proposed management strategies for a wildlife recovery
Journal/Year:Human Dimensions of Wildlife/2007
View:This is an electronic version of an article published in Human Dimensions of Wildlife© 2007 Copyright Taylor and Francis; This article is available online at Taylor & Francis Online
Author(s):Anita T. Morzillo|Angela G. Mertig|Nathan Garner|Jianguo Liu
Keywords:attitudes|Big Thicket National Preserve|black bear|recovery|spatial analysis
Abstract:Wildlife managers regularly incorporate human attitudes into decisions involving wildlife conservation. Knowing the spatial distribution of particular attitudes may further assist managers in determining distribution of support of or threats against wildlife species. Using results from a mail survey and SaTScan 4.0, we assessed the spatial distribution (clustering) of attitudes toward several management strategies for the recovery of black bear in and around Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas. Statistically significant clustering occurred for two attitudes: (a) non-support for a natural (non-human assisted) increase in the bear population near the Angelina National Forest and (b) strong disagreement toward total exclusion of bears from southeastern Texas within the relatively urban Orange County. In addition, respondents closer to the preserve, a potential black bear release site, were more likely to support exclusion of bears. Analysis such as this can greatly assist managers in planning public outreach and monitoring of wildlife populations.
Management Implications:In conclusion, the objective of our research was to illustrate the application of spatial analysis to social survey research. Even though our results identified two statistically significant clusters related to attitudes toward potential bear management options, such findings do not lead to unanimous agreement on the "best" management option. The suggestion that residents near BTNP are less supportive of a bear recovery may initially pose a big challenge to bear recovery efforts. Bear managers must determine if conditions exist for which non-supporters near the preserve will be willing to tolerate bear presence (e.g., movement of bear if nuisance problems occur; financial incentives), or if such residents will immediately threaten a bear's well-being (e.g., shoot it immediately). Should a reintroduction occur, and the bear population expands, the possibility exists that attitudes across the study area will change. Having residents throughout the study area who support a black bear recovery via Assist or Restock may allow for widespread initial support for TPWD's bear management goals, but support may decrease if bears become a nuisance at any time and in any given location. Unfortunately, several development proposals are threatening the ecologically fragile landscape of BTNP and the surrounding area. Decisions involving divestment of timberlands and urban development may drastically change the area's landscape. Rapidly growing cities in Texas, such as Houston, Austin, San Antonio, and Dallas-Ft. Worth, are playing a role in plans for an eight-lane superhighway and water diversion projects. These threats have resulted in BTNP's inclusion among the National Parks Conservation Association's (NPCA) 10 most endangered parks in the United States (NPCA, 2004). Potential land use decisions that threaten ecological landscape components are common among areas surrounding public lands that are targeted for species recovery programs. Spatial analysis of attitudes like this study can provide managers with insight toward where local support and non-support exists for conservation and species management goals.
Citation:Morzillo, A. T., A. G. Mertig, N. Garner, and J. Liu. 2007. Spatial distribution of attitudes toward proposed management strategies for a wildlife recovery. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 12:15-29.
Title:Stakeholders' attitudes concerning black bears in north east Texas: a comprehensive management implication study
Journal/Year:TPWD Report/2008
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Author(s):Adam Keul|Pat Stephens Williams|Ray Darville|Chris Comer|Mike Legg
Management Implications:Upon total analysis of the data, several recommendations can be made with respect to the future of the black bear in Northeast Texas. The survey data reveals that although the people of the region are generally in favor of having black bears, they do not believe that proactive steps should be taken to bring them to the area. Since the bear will and has naturally re-migrated to the area, efforts should be focused on education and awareness, especially to children and those who spend a significant amount of time outdoors either as an occupation or hobby. It is likely that education and awareness about the myths and realities of living with bears will ease the inevitable transition of Northeast Texas into "bear country". The research can be extended or intensified in a variety of directions. First, it may be necessary to fill the gaps in the data along the lines of under-represented groups. Women, minorities and younger adults were statistically under-represented, and could be polled using a similar targeted survey or methodology. Also, it would be pertinent to compare the results from this survey to other wildlife surveys in East Texas, or from other parts of Texas. An urban survey of bear-opinions might show a rift between the two socio-geographic realms. In addition, using similar surveys of Northeast and Southeast Texas for reference could help define these regions, or even determine if they are significantly different. To further investigate the impact of opinions on this project, more public meetings, or small discussion panels could meet in those regions affected to elicit detailed information. It seems that a gathering of minds and speaking one-on-one with the stakeholders could give researchers a better representation of local opinions. Moreover, determining the cause of the low response rate would also be a worthwhile endeavor. At this point, it is not known whether non-response was a showing of disapproval for black bears, or a lack of interest in returning unsolicited mail. Although the handwritten comments (including letters) seemed to indicate disdain towards surveys and non-response based on lack of knowledge, a more scientific study of non-response is necessary. To determine this, a random selection of non-respondents should be polled for their reasons for non-response. In addition, it is recommended that future research studies be conducted to look at stakeholders in the adjacent states who have a history of existing bear populations to determine the perceptions concerning living with bears, desired information and education needs, and where they obtain their information, in order to prepare Texans for living with bears; to interview those stakeholders in Texas that have reported bear sightings to determine the differences in attitudes from those who have not had bear encounters; and to do in-depth I and E in those areas identified by this study as "hot" spots of potential fear and non-acceptance.
Citation:Keul, A., P. Stephens Williams, R. Darville, C. Comer, and M. Legg. 2008. Stakeholders' attitudes concerning black bears in northeast Texas: a comprehensive management implication study. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Technical Report, Austin, USA.
Title:Evaluating hunter support for black bear restoration in east Texas
Journal/Year:Human Dimensions of Wildlife/2009
View:This is an electronic version of an article published in Human Dimensions of Wildlife© 2009 Copyright Taylor and Francis; This article is available online at Taylor & Francis Online
Author(s):Anita T. Morzillo|Angela G. Mertig|Nathan Garner|Jianguo Liu
Keywords:attitudes|black bear|hunting|restoration|Texas
Abstract:Hunters are an influential interest group in wildlife management. Little is known, however, about variation in attitudes toward species restoration among hunters in regard to either specific hunting interests or restoration of black bear. We surveyed 1,006 East Texas residents to assess hunter support for restoration of black bear populations in East Texas and hunter interest in hunting black bears. Because we defined hunters broadly, our study included hunters who were demographically dissimilar to those in other studies. Sixty-one percent of hunters supported black bear restoration. Among hunters, restoration support was twice as great among those interested versus not interested in hunting black bears. Our results highlight the importance of measurement differences in determining the boundaries of particular stakeholder groups and reinforce the importance of hunting specialization in influencing management attitudes.
Citation:Morzillo, A. T., A. G. Mertig, N. Garner, and J. Liu. 2009. Evaluating hunter support for black bear restoration in east Texas. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 14:407-418.
Title:Socioeconomic factors affecting local support for black bear recovery strategies
Journal/Year:Environmental Management/2010
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Author(s):Anita T. Morzillo|Angela G. Mertig|Jeffrey W. Hollister|Nathan Garner|Jianguo Liu
Keywords:American black bear|attitudes|conditional probability analysis|human-bear conflict|human dimensions|population recovery|Ursus americanus|wildlife management
Abstract:There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species' historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic factors. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Although impact was limited, older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with information pertinent to minimizing the potential for black bear-human conflict.
Management Implications:Our results provide managers with baseline information about recovery support, concerns, and uncertainty that may be used for further public outreach efforts. Complementing logistic analysis with visually friendly CPA may be more useful than statistical output alone, particularly when presenting results to the general public. For instance, outreach emphasis on providing even a small amount of information about black bears may be effective at helping residents make informed decisions about management actions and future black bear recovery policy (McFarlane and other 2006). However, there is no guarantee that outreach and related information will results in either increased local knowledge about black bears (Bowman and other 2001) or greater support for recovery (Bright and Manfredo 1995; Lohr and others 1996; see also Morzillo and others 2007a). Some residents never will support recovery, but learning more about and conditions that determine locals' reasons for opposition or uncertainty may prove valuable for conservation planning.
Citation:Morzillo, A. T., A. G. Mertig, J. W. Hollister, N. Garner, and J. Liu. 2010. Socioeconomic factors affecting local support for black bear recovery strategies. Environmental Management 45:1299-1311.