DRAFT: 2024 Land and Water Resources Conservation and Recreation Plan

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) is seeking public comments on the draft 2024 Land and Water Resources Conservation and Recreation Plan (Land and Water Plan). The text of the draft Land and Water Plan is provided below. To provide comments, please complete this survey by September 30.

TPWD offered two public webinars to profile the 2024 Land and Water Plan and provide instructions for submitting comments. They were recorded and are now available online. See links below.

Once public comments have been reviewed and addressed by TPWD, a final version of the 2024 Land and Water Plan will be presented to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Commission for final review and approval at their November meeting.


The Land and Water Resources Conservation and Recreation Plan (Land & Water Plan; Texas Parks & Wildlife Code, § 11.101–106) summarizes status and trends of Texas natural and cultural resources and identifies specific strategies and science-based actions to be undertaken by Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) to achieve the vision, goals, and objectives outlined in the Natural Agenda, the TPWD strategic plan. The Land & Water Plan serves to guide and evaluate the effectiveness of TPWD in conserving the natural and cultural resources of Texas, and is updated every 10 years in conjunction with the update of the Land & Water Statewide Inventory.

TPWD Mission

To manage and conserve the natural and cultural resources of Texas and to provide hunting, fishing and outdoor recreation opportunities for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations.

TPWD Philosophy

In fulfilling our mission, TPWD will strive to:

  • Be a recognized national leader in implementing effective natural and cultural resources conservation, law enforcement, and outdoor recreational programs;
  • Serve the State of Texas, its diverse citizens, its visitors, and our employees with the highest standards of service, professionalism, fairness, courtesy, inclusion, and respect;
  • Rely on the best available science to guide our conservation and management decisions;
  • Responsibly manage agency finances and appropriations to ensure the most efficient and effective use of taxpayer and user fee resources; and
  • Attract and retain the best, brightest, and most talented workforce to successfully execute our mission.

TPWD Goals

Goal 1 – Practice, encourage, and enable science-based stewardship of natural and cultural resources.

Goal 2 – Increase access to and participation in the outdoors.

Goal 3 – Educate, inform, and engage Texas citizens in support of conservation and recreation.

TPWD Objectives, Strategies, and Actions

Objective 1

Be an exemplary steward of the public’s lands and waters by using the best available science for ecosystem-based management.

Strategies to Achieve Objective 1:

  • Strategy 1.1 – Sustainably manage recreationally and commercially important fish and wildlife resources using best available science.
  • Strategy 1.2 – Manage landscapes and watersheds holistically, in cooperation with public and private landowners, to restore and preserve fish and wildlife species, habitats, and ecosystems.
  • Strategy 1.3 – Collaborate with regional conservation partnerships, including bird joint ventures and fish habitat partnerships, to achieve regional goals for the restoration, enhancement, and preservation of fish and wildlife habitats.
  • Strategy 1.4 – Manage public lands and waters for sustainable use and enjoyment compatible with conservation goals.
  • Strategy 1.5 – Develop and implement strategies to prevent the introduction and spread of invasive species, wildlife diseases, and other threats to native species and ecosystems.

Actions to Achieve Objective 1:

  • Action 1.1 – Perform over 12,000 surveys annually to assess population trends and ensure the science-based management of recreationally and commercially important species and their habitats.
  • Action 1.2 – Perform over 1,500 project-based consultations annually through state and federal regulatory processes to inform the conservation of fish and wildlife resources.
  • Action 1.3 – Create and publish maps of subtidal habitats in one bay every three years.
  • Action 1.4 – Contribute to the sustainability of the oyster fishery and resilience of Texas estuaries by restoring 10 acres of degraded and lost oyster habitats annually.
  • Action 1.5 – Design, plan, and implement 25 aquatic habitat restoration or enhancement projects annually in Texas creeks, rivers, and lakes.
  • Action 1.6 – Manage over 15,000 acres of aquatic vegetation annually on Texas lakes to enhance fish habitat and fishing access.
  • Action 1.7 – Stock 41 million fish fingerlings annually in public waters.
  • Action 1.8 – Support at least 30 public leased fishing access areas annually on Texas creeks and rivers.
  • Action 1.9 – Provide 1,425,000 acres of land annually for public hunting.
  • Action 1.10 – Dedicate at least 17,000 hours of staff time annually to the management of aquatic invasive species.
  • Action 1.11 – Fulfill statewide sampling goals for surveillance of Chronic Wasting Disease.
  • Action 1.12 – Perform 100 fish kill or fish health investigations annually.

Objective 2

Provide technical assistance, scientific tools, and strategies to restore and protect healthy aquatic ecosystems.

Strategies to Achieve Objective 2:

  • Strategy 2.1 – Provide technical expertise and data to federal, state, and local agencies to ensure sufficient water quality and quantity for fish and wildlife resources.
  • Strategy 2.2 – Cooperate with public and private entities to integrate planning and management of groundwater, spring, stream, wetland, estuarine, and marine ecosystems.
  • Strategy 2.3 – Perform studies and cooperate on the development of hydraulic models and other scientific tools that increase understanding of groundwater and surface water connections.
  • Strategy 2.4 – Provide technical guidance, planning assistance, and financial incentives to restore and maintain appropriate watershed and hydrologic conditions.
  • Strategy 2.5 – Ensure that statewide and regional water planning, flood planning, water management, and water permitting processes consider the needs of fish and wildlife resources.
  • Strategy 2.6 – Cooperate with stakeholders to ensure Texas Surface Water Quality Standards increasingly incorporate biological data to protect the health and productivity of Texas waters.
  • Strategy 2.7 – Encourage the voluntary transfer of water rights to the Texas Water Trust or appropriate nonprofit water trusts to restore and protect healthy aquatic ecosystems.
  • Strategy 2.8 – Provide trainings for internal and external users on application of the TPWD Environmental Flow Information Toolkit as a decision support tool to inform voluntary water transactions.

Actions to Achieve Objective 2:

  • Action 2.1 – Provide technical input on instream flow, water level, freshwater inflow, and water quality needs of fish and wildlife resources to inform the development of the 2027 and 2032 State Water Plans. 
  • Action 2.2 – Update the statewide assessment of ecologically significant stream segments by 2028.
  • Action 2.3 – Facilitate 8 voluntary environmental water transactions, flow agreements, or water level agreements by 2033 that conserve fish and wildlife resources and enhance outdoor recreation.
  • Action 2.4 – Provide technical input on nature-based solutions, floodplain maintenance, and riparian and riverine floodplain ecosystem health to inform the 2024 and 2029 State Flood Plans.
  • Action 2.5 – Provide technical input to represent the needs of fish and wildlife resources in the 2026, 2030, and 2034 reviews of the Texas Surface Water Quality Standards.

Objective 3

Maintain, restore, and protect healthy ecosystems on public lands.

Strategies to Achieve Objective 3:

  • Strategy 3.1 – Concentrate on-the-ground conservation efforts on landscapes of high biological value, such as watersheds, aquifer recharge zones, wildlife corridors, and migratory bird flyways.
  • Strategy 3.2 – Publish, disseminate, and promote guidelines and protocols for habitat restoration and management.
  • Strategy 3.3 – Inventory conservation, recreation, and historic properties to identify gaps in representation and protection.
  • Strategy 3.4 – Expand existing or acquire additional wildlife management areas in underrepresented ecological regions for habitat management, conservation demonstration, public hunting, and other public outdoor recreation opportunities.
  • Strategy 3.5 – Manage exotic and feral species populations on TPWD lands to minimize impacts.
  • Strategy 3.6 – Expand and enhance state park sites by acquiring inholdings and adjacent tracts from willing donors and sellers.
  • Strategy 3.7 – Seek opportunities to create new state parks of high biological and recreational value near metropolitan centers.
  • Strategy 3.8 – Utilize the Land and Water Inventory and related recreational assessments contained in the Texas Outdoor Recreation Plan to inform land acquisition and other strategies for expanding public outdoor recreation.
  • Strategy 3.9 – Coordinate with federal, state, and local land and water management agencies to sustainably manage public lands and waters for the benefit of fish and wildlife resources.

Actions to Achieve Objective 3:

  • Action 3.1 – Implement at least 14 cooperative agreements with federal and state agencies to manage wildlife habitat and provide hunting opportunities on publicly owned lands.
  • Action 3.2 – Develop a State Park Land Acquisition Strategy by 2025 that prioritizes land acquisition decisions.
  • Action 3.3 – Coordinate with federal, state, and local land management agencies on the planning and construction of 5 new state park sites by 2033.
  • Action 3.4 – Increase the amount of state park acreage by 32,000 acres by 2033.

Objective 4

Foster conservation of healthy ecosystems on private lands.

Strategies to Achieve Objective 4:

  • Strategy 4.1 – Increase the number of wildlife cooperatives and landowner conservation networks focused on conservation of fish and wildlife habitats.
  • Strategy 4.2 – Incorporate watershed management goals into wildlife management plans and coordinate across TPWD divisions to assemble integrated and holistic management strategies for upland, riparian, and aquatic habitats.
  • Strategy 4.3 – Educate landowners, wildlife cooperatives, and nongovernmental organizations about management options, funding opportunities, and incentive-based management programs to help achieve habitat management and land conservation goals.
  • Strategy 4.4 – Encourage landowners to cooperatively establish or enroll in conservation agreements to preserve intact, contiguous habitats and wildlife corridors.
  • Strategy 4.5 – Provide technical guidance on wildlife and habitat management, watershed management, and control of invasive and feral species.
  • Strategy 4.6 – Provide technical guidance and recommendations on conservation practices and priority landscapes eligible for financial assistance through U.S. Farm Bill conservation programs.
  • Strategy 4.7 – Utilize wildlife management areas as research and demonstration sites to help expose private landowners to recommended conservation practices.
  • Strategy 4.8 – Educate private landowners on the economic benefits of conservation.
  • Strategy 4.9 – Promote watershed and range management practices that improve ground and surface water quality and quantity.
  • Strategy 4.10 – Provide technical guidance, including incentive-based strategies, for protecting and managing habitats for rare and priority species.
  • Strategy 4.11 – Share information with landowners on the value of historical and cultural resources.

Actions to Achieve Objective:

  • Action 4.1 – Maintain and implement TPWD-approved wildlife management agreements on 20% of the total land acreage of Texas to enhance wildlife populations.
  • Action 4.2 – In collaboration with the Texas land trust community and cooperating landowners, support 35 new conservation easements by 2033 that protect approximately 56,000 acres of private working lands from development.
  • Action 4.3 – Enhance the scope and functionality of the Land Management Assistance system by 2025 to enable tracking and reporting of TPWD’s cost-share programs, including number of participating properties and acreage restored or enhanced.

Objective 5

Maintain the highest level of scientific validity and credibility.

Strategies to Achieve Objective 5:

  • Strategy 5.1 – Conduct, support, and disseminate peer-reviewed research to ensure the science-based management and conservation of fish and wildlife resources.
  • Strategy 5.2 – Establish procedures that ensure all formal research follows the scientific method including the use of peer-review throughout the process to yield useful and credible findings.
  • Strategy 5.3 – Ensure study designs are rigorous and adequate to yield stated objectives.
  • Strategy 5.4 – Pursue technical training, apply for competitive research grants, and secure other resources needed to conduct innovative science.
  • Strategy 5.5 – Disseminate research findings through technical presentations at professional conferences and through publication in peer-reviewed reports and journals.
  • Strategy 5.6 – Conduct periodic reviews of standard protocols including fish and wildlife resource monitoring to ensure internal use of the best scientific methods.
  • Strategy 5.7 – Develop position papers explaining the scientific basis for the agency’s positions and perspectives.
  • Strategy 5.8 – Maintain lists of research needs and peer-reviewed publications for priority species, habitats, and ecosystems.

Actions to Achieve Objective 5:

  • Action 5.1 – Conduct or collaborate on 70 applied research projects annually to inform the management and conservation of fish and wildlife resources.
  • Action 5.2 – Organize and host at least 10 science communication events (e.g., virtual webinars, workshops) annually that facilitate information-sharing among TPWD scientists, external cooperators, stakeholders, and the public.

Objective 6

Restore, recover, and protect Species of Greatest Conservation Need, including state and federally listed species.

Strategies to Achieve Objective 6:

  • Strategy 6.1 – Coordinate delivery of priority conservation actions identified for Species of Greatest Conservation Need within the State Wildlife Action Plan for Texas.
  • Strategy 6.2 – Cooperate with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other partners to implement conservation actions for federally listed species identified in conservation agreements and recovery plans.
  • Strategy 6.3 – Review best available science, conduct applied research to fill knowledge gaps, and periodically reassess the listing status of State Threatened species, State Endangered species, and Species of Greatest Conservation Need.

Actions to Achieve Objective 6:

  • Action 6.1 – Reassess the conservation status of 25 Species of Greatest Conservation Need annually.
  • Action 6.2 – Review best available science and update the lists of Species of Greatest Conservation Need, State Threatened species, and State Endangered species at least every 5 years.
  • Action 6.3 – Expand or restore the occupied range of 5 Species of Greatest Conservation Need by 2028 through repatriation, habitat restoration, and other conservation actions.

Objective 7

Establish and enforce regulations to conserve fish and wildlife resources.

Strategies to Achieve Objective 7:

  • Strategy 7.1 – Provide a comprehensive law enforcement program that increases public awareness, understanding, and support of the TPWD mission.
  • Strategy 7.2 – Utilize the best available science and human dimensions data to provide recommendations to policymakers to encourage legal, sustainable, and ethical use of natural resources.
  • Strategy 7.3 – Coordinate with federal, state, and local agencies to combat environmental crimes.
  • Strategy 7.4 – Educate and work collaboratively with businesses and industry to achieve compliance with natural resource regulations.
  • Strategy 7.5 – Promote Operation Game Thief to curb illegal exploitation of fish and wildlife resources.
  • Strategy 7.6 – Raise the level of voluntary compliance by increasing the number of contacts with hunters, anglers, and other natural resources users.
  • Strategy 7.7 – Implement, strengthen, and enforce regulations that prevent the introduction and spread of invasive species, wildlife diseases, and other threats to native species and ecosystems.

Actions to Achieve Objective 7:

  • Action 7.1 – Dedicate 500,000 hours annually to educate and enforce fisheries and wildlife rules and regulations.
  • Action 7.2 – Dedicate 165,000 hours annually to educate and enforce water safety rules and regulations.
  • Action 7.3 – Perform a comprehensive gap analysis by 2028 of laws, regulations, and enforcement needed to conserve fish and wildlife habitats on public lands, public freshwaters including state-owned streambeds, and Texas tidal waters including state-owned submerged lands.
  • Action 7.4 – Perform a comprehensive gap analysis by 2028 of laws, regulations, and enforcement needed to prevent the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive fish, shellfish, and plants.
  • Action 7.5 – Perform a comprehensive gap analysis by 2033 of laws, regulations, and enforcement needed to prevent the introduction and spread of terrestrial invasive plant and wildlife species.

Objective 8

Protect and interpret cultural resources.

Strategies to Achieve Objective 8:

  • Strategy 8.1 – Expand efforts to connect Texans and out-of-state visitors with the cultural heritage of Texas.
  • Strategy 8.2 – Coordinate with the Texas Historical Commission on activities that protect and promote historic sites.
  • Strategy 8.3 – Implement archeological site-monitoring plans and utilize best preservation practices and standards.
  • Strategy 8.4 – Develop training for TPWD site staff on the identification and protection of archeological and historic resources on public lands.
  • Strategy 8.5 – Document and mitigate impacts to cultural resources in all planning activities on TPWD sites.
  • Strategy 8.6 – Cooperate with federal and state agencies and tribes to protect cultural resources on wildlife management areas.

Actions to Achieve Objective 8:

  • Action 8.1 – Assemble a Cultural Resource Inventory Strategy for Texas State Parks by 2025 that prioritizes locations to conduct inventories and publish cultural resource reports.
  • Action 8.2 – Conduct 5 cultural resource inventories on state park properties by 2028.
  • Action 8.3 – Provide 6 training courses per year for state park staff on the identification and protection of archeological and historic resources on public lands.
  • Action 8.4 – Review 200 project planning proposals each year to mitigate impacts to cultural resources on agency properties.
  • Action 8.5 – Assemble 6 archaeological site monitoring plans annually.
  • Action 8.6 – Produce and install 18 interpretive exhibit projects that feature the cultural heritage of state park sites by 2028.

Objective 9

Anticipate and plan for emerging conservation issues.

Strategies to Achieve Objective 9:

  • Strategy 9.1 – Participate in international, national, state, and regional scientific forums to identify and address emerging issues.
  • Strategy 9.2 – Implement climate adaptation strategies to enhance ecosystem resiliency and mitigate anticipated impacts to fish and wildlife resources.
  • Strategy 9.3 – Evaluate the potential impacts of emerging energy, utility, and fuel technologies on fish and wildlife resources.
  • Strategy 9.4 – Provide technical input to minimize impacts to fish and wildlife resources from renewable energy projects, including hydropower, solar, and wind.

Objective 10

Provide a variety of high-quality, nature-oriented outdoor recreational opportunities on TPWD sites.

Strategies to Achieve Objective 10:

  • Strategy 10.1 – Increase public fishing and hunting opportunities.
  • Strategy 10.2 – Provide diverse outdoor recreational opportunities, from urban programs to paddling trails to wilderness backcountry camping.
  • Strategy 10.3 – Expand outdoor programs for Texas youth.
  • Strategy 10.4 – Construct and maintain facilities and amenities to broaden access to the outdoors, protect natural resources, and enhance the quality of experiences for people of all ages, abilities, and interests.
  • Strategy 10.5 – Optimize visitation and visitor experience while protecting natural and cultural resources.
  • Strategy 10.6 – Inventory and prioritize projects to enhance accessibility at TPWD sites.
  • Strategy 10.7 – Include accessibility information in all program descriptions.
  • Strategy 10.8 – Post accessibility information for each public site on the relevant TPWD web pages.
  • Strategy 10.9 – Increase public awareness of recreational opportunities at TPWD sites.
  • Strategy 10.10 – Increase compatible recreational opportunities and programs at wildlife management areas.
  • Strategy 10.11 – Post information at each site regarding its acquisition, mission, purpose, rules, and recreational opportunities.

Actions to Achieve Objective 10:

  • Action 10.1 – Ensure access to parklands for 88% of urban Texans within 60 miles of their respective urban centers by 2027.
  • Action 10.2 – Facilitate 31.5 million paid park visits by 2028.
  • Action 10.3 – Provide fishing opportunities and related outreach to over 30,000 visitors annually at the Texas Freshwater Fisheries Center.
  • Action 10.4 – Construct 65 miles of trails on state park properties by 2033.

Objective 11

Encourage people of all ages, backgrounds, and abilities to experience the outdoors.

Strategies to Achieve Objective 11:

  • Strategy 11.1 – Promote the enjoyable, responsible, and ethical use of natural, cultural, and recreational resources.
  • Strategy 11.2 – Provide education certification programs for hunters and boaters.
  • Strategy 11.3 – Conduct outreach activities and events targeted specifically for underrepresented communities.
  • Strategy 11.4 – Engage underserved populations through multilingual programs.
  • Strategy 11.5 – Utilize translation services to connect TPWD programs with expanded audiences.
  • Strategy 11.6 – Collaborate with organizations that serve Texans with disabilities in delivering TPWD outdoor recreation and education programs.
  • Strategy 11.7 – Offer accessibility accommodations for outdoor programs and activities.
  • Strategy 11.8 – Expand Texas Outdoor Family program offerings.
  • Strategy 11.9 – Develop and implement programs that encourage children to connect with and experience nature.
  • Strategy 11.10 – Offer recreational workshops that physically engage participants in outdoor activities.
  • Strategy 11.11 – Collaborate with classroom educators, and health and physical education instructors, to advocate for a lifelong interest in outdoor recreational activities.
  • Strategy 11.12 – Expand the availability of training and curriculum tools to educators and conservation partners.
  • Strategy 11.13 – Promote participation in TPWD programs by non-profit partner organizations based in education and schools.
  • Strategy 11.14 – Develop and expand digital content and services that encourage the public to experience the outdoors.

Actions to Achieve Objective 11:

  • Action 11.1 – Update the Texas R3 Plan, TPWD’s plan to recruit, retain, and reactivate anglers, boaters, hunters, and target shooters, by 2026.
  • Action 11.2 – Certify 60,000 students annually in hunter education.
  • Action 11.3 – Certify 30,000 students annually in boater education.
  • Action 11.4 – Reach 500,000 Texans annually through delivery of angler education, aquatic education, shooting sports, and other outreach and education programs.
  • Action 11.5 – Provide Texas Outdoor Family workshops to introduce 2,000 Texans to camping annually.
  • Action 11.6 – Increase fishing and hunting participation by annual averages of 2% and 1%, respectively.

Objective 12

Encourage nature and heritage tourism.

Strategies to Achieve Objective 12:

  • Strategy 12.1 – Collaborate with public and private organizations to identify and implement creative strategies for promoting nature and heritage tourism.
  • Strategy 12.2 – Assist local communities and private landowners in developing economically viable recreational venues for activities such as wildlife-watching, stargazing, photo safaris, camping, and other nature-based recreation.
  • Strategy 12.3 – Partner with public and private organizations to establish and promote natural and cultural areas and trails.
  • Strategy 12.4 – Market agency sites as nature and heritage tourism destinations.
  • Strategy 12.5 – Promote information and resources available through the Texas Travel Alliance and Texas State Agency Tourism Council.

Actions to Achieve Objective 12:

  • Action 12.1 – Manage, promote, and develop targeted nature tourism communication through email subscriber lists for nature tourism programs, including the Great Texas Wildlife Trails, Texas Paddling Trails, and Great Texas Birding Classic, and expand the number of subscribers by 10% annually.
  • Action 12.2 – Maintain the 79 existing Texas Paddling Trails for access to paddling, fishing, and wildlife-viewing on rivers, lakes, bays, and coastal areas through 2028.
  • Action 12.3 – Increase access to Texas Paddling Trails by at least 150 miles by 2028, with 100 of these being within 60 miles of urban centers.
  • Action 12.4 – Engage Texas Master Naturalist volunteers in annual site visits to help promote and update information for at least 33% of all Great Texas Wildlife Trails sites by 2028.
  • Action 12.5 – Make updates twice annually to the Great Texas Wildlife Trails website to ensure updated information on nature tourism destinations is provided to the public online.
  • Action 12.6 – Increase the registered number of teams in the Great Texas Birding Classic to 240 teams by 2028.

Objective 13

Cultivate support for the conservation of natural and cultural resources.

Strategies to Achieve Objective 13:

  • Strategy 13.1 – Lead efforts to encourage Texans to protect natural and cultural resources.
  • Strategy 13.2 – Advance public awareness and understanding of the significance and benefits of well-managed lands and waters.
  • Strategy 13.3 – Promote land- and water-management practices that benefit fish and wildlife resources.
  • Strategy 13.4 – Increase public awareness of the North American Model of Wildlife Conservation and related contributions made by hunters, anglers, and other outdoor enthusiasts through user fees and license purchases.
  • Strategy 13.5 – Promote the benefits of restoring native habitats by conducting demonstration projects and hosting field days.
  • Strategy 13.6 – Encourage volunteerism in support of conservation and outdoor recreation, including participation in the Texas Master Naturalist and Texas Nature Trackers programs.
  • Strategy 13.7 – Demonstrate the benefits of rainwater harvesting, renewable energy, and other green technologies.
  • Strategy 13.8 – Advance communication with all constituents by providing more multilingual and accessible resources.

Actions to Achieve Objective 13:

  • Action 13.1 – Conduct 800 presentations and consultations for the general public annually focused on the management and conservation of fish and wildlife resources.

Objective 14

Increase awareness of the value of urban and suburban ecosystems.

Strategies to Achieve Objective 14:

  • Strategy 14.1 – Provide technical guidance and planning assistance to municipalities, developers, and the public to inform conservation of urban and suburban ecosystems.
  • Strategy 14.2 – Collaborate with local governments to manage and conserve green space, watersheds, aquifer recharge zones, and park lands.
  • Strategy 14.3 – Explore new ways to involve urban residents in outdoor activities.
  • Strategy 14.4 – Provide technical guidance and materials to urban audiences on coexisting with wildlife.
  • Strategy 14.5 – Increase awareness and engagement by urban audiences in TPWD conservation and outdoor recreation programs targeting urban centers.

Actions to Achieve Objective 14:

  • Action 14.1 – Support 18 high-use urban fishing sites annually through the Neighborhood Fishin’ Program.
  • Action 14.2 – Complete 30 local park construction projects annually supported through the Recreation Grants Program.
  • Action 14.4 – Produce and disseminate 7 videos annually that provide technical guidance to the public on urban wildlife topics.